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The Church of the Flagellation is a Franciscan complex which includes a monastery located in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, and is adjacent to the Church of the Condemnation and Imposition of the Cross. The site is traditionally marked as the place where the Roman soldiers flogged Jesus after he was convicted and sentenced to death by crucifixion (John 19:17-19).

The church is regular stop by pilgrim on holyland tours because it is Station 2 of the Via Dolorosa. On the walls of the convent the sign "II" is displayed, marked on a round metal marker. Behind the wall is the chapel of Condemnation, and three of its white domes are seen at the top of the wall.

During the Ottoman period this early shrine and its surrounding buildings were used as stables, and later as private houses. The site was later given to the Franciscans in 1836-1838 by Egyptian General Ibrahim Pasha, who conquered Jerusalem in 1832 and held it until 1841. The first chapel was built in 1839 over the remains of a medieval crusader shrine.

The current church was completed and designed by Antonio Barluzzi between 1927 and 1929 and was a complete reconstruction of the original building. Some noteworthy points to mention of the interior include the church's 3 stained glass windows, depicting a different aspect of the church's Biblical scriptures, and the church's mosaic clad golden dome. The first window depicts Pontius Pilate washing his hands, (Matthew 27:24) the second the Flagellation, (Mark 15:15) (John 19:1) and the third the victory of Barabbas (Matthew 27:26) (Mark 15:15) (Luke 23:24-25). The mosaic of the dome is designed as a crown of thorns.